**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra: **Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima; Taylor series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities; Directional derivatives; Line, Surface and Volume integrals.

**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE):** First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; initial and boundary value problems.

**Partial Differential Equation (PDE):** Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one- dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

**Probability and Statistics:** Sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Descriptive statistics - Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random Variables – Discrete and Continuous, Poisson and Normal Distribution; Linear regression.

**Numerical Methods:** Error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials; numerical differentiation; Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

**Section 2: Structural Engineering**

**Engineering Mechanics:** System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system.

**Solid Mechanics: **Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:** Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

**Construction Materials and Management:** Construction Materials: Structural Steel - Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis - PERT and CPM; Cost estimation.

**Concrete Structures:** Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams.

**Steel Structures:** Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis - beams and frames.

**Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering**

**Soil Mechanics**: Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability - one dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two - dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One- dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, Stress-Strain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths.

**Foundation Engineering:** Sub-surface investigations - Drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories - Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral

loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction.

**Section 4: Water Resources Engineering**

**Fluid Mechanics:** Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag.

**Hydraulics: **Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics - Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles.

**Hydrology:** Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law.

**Irrigation: **Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements - Duty, delta, evapo-transpiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures.

**Section 5: Environmental Engineering**

**Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment: **Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment.

Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications.

**Air Pollution:** Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits.

**Municipal Solid Wastes**: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered

systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Section 6: Transportation Engineering**

**Transportation Infrastructure: **Geometric design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments.

Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant.

Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design.

**Highway Pavements:** Highway materials - desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes.

**Traffic Engineering:** Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity.

**Section 7: Geomatics Engineering**

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing - Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS.

**Section 8: General Aptitude**

**Verbal Aptitude:**

**Basic English grammar:** tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech.

** Basic vocabulary:** words, idioms, and phrases in context, Reading and comprehension, Narrative sequencing.

**Quantitative Aptitude:**

**Data interpretation: **data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables.

**Numerical computation and estimation:** ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series.

Mensuration and geometry. Elementary statistics and probability.

**Analytical Aptitude:**

**Logic**: Deduction and induction, Analogy, Numerical relations and reasoning.

**Spatial Aptitude:**

**Transformation of shapes:** translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping. Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions.

Download GATE 2023 Civil Engineering Syllabus

Download GATE 2023 Aptitude Syllabus

Previous GATE Civil Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus