in Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment recategorized by
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Analysis of a water sample revealed that the sample contains the following species.

$CO_3^{2-}, Na^+, H^+, PO_4^{3-}, Al^{3+}, H_2CO_3, Cl^-, Ca^{2+}, Mg^{2+}, HCO_3^-, Fe^{2+}, OH^-$

Concentrations of which of the species will be required to compute alkalinity?

  1. $CO_3^{2-}, H^+, HCO_3^-, OH^-$
  2. $CO_3^{2-}, H^+, H_2CO_3, HCO_3^-$
  3. $CO_3^{2-}, H_2CO_3, HCO_3^-, OH^-$
  4. $H^+, H_2CO_3, HCO_3^-, OH^-$
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