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Let $\sigma _{v}^{'}$ and $\sigma _{h}^{'}$ denote the effective vertical stress and effective horizontal stress, respectively. Which one of the following conditions must be satisfied for a soil element to reach the failure state under Rankine's passive earth pressure condition?

  1. $\sigma _{v}^{'} < \sigma _{h}^{'}$
  2. $\sigma _{v}^{'} > \sigma _{h}^{'}$
  3. $\sigma _{v}^{'} = \sigma _{h}^{'}$
  4. $\sigma _{v}^{'} + \sigma _{h}^{'} = 0$
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